Carbonated water (bubbly water, fizzy water, or soda water) is water into which carbon dioxide gas under pressure has been dissolved, either by technology or by a natural geologic source. Many kinds of water are carbonated, including sparkling mineral water, club soda, sparkling water or 'seltzer water' (US), tonic water, and soda water. Mineral water, club soda and soda water typically contain dissolved minerals such as potassium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or potassium sulfate which are meant to enhance its flavor, though sparkling water is water combined only with carbon dioxide with no other additives. Tonic water includes quinine. Carbonation is the process that causes the water to become effervescent. All forms of carbonated water are available in ready-to-drink bottles and cans but some can also be prepared at home with a soda maker.
It is thought the first person to aerate water with carbon dioxide was William Brownrigg in 1740, although he never published a paper. Carbonated water was independently accidentally invented by Joseph Priestley in 1767 when he discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide after suspending a bowl of water above a beer vat at a brewery in Leeds, England. He wrote of the "peculiar satisfaction" he found in drinking it, and in 1772 he published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air. Priestley’s apparatus, which featured a bladder between the generator and the absorption tank to regulate the flow of carbon dioxide, was soon joined by a wide range of others, but it wasn’t until 1781 that carbonated water began being produced on a large scale with the establishment of companies specialized in producing artificial mineral water.The first factory was built by Thomas Henry of Manchester, England. Henry replaced the bladder in Priestley’s system with large bellows. While Priestley is regarded as “the father of the soft drink”, he did not benefit financially from his invention. He did however receive scientific recognition for his invention of carbonated water when, in 1772, the Council of the Royal Society “were moved to reward its discoverer with the Copley Medal”.
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